Black Soldier Fly for Biodiesel production

21.02.2017  /  Scienceandmore  /  Category: Animal Biology

Large amounts of organic wastes accumulate worldwide every year. These wastes comprise for instance of slaughterhouse wastes (approximately 500 million tonnes in the EU annually), whey from cheese production (approximately 50 million tonnes in the EU annually), kitchen and food wastes, and wastes from crop plants, such as crop straw. In attempts to reduce the amount of organic wastes, fat from slaughterhouse wastes is used for the production of bioplastics by the non-pathogenic bacterium Cupriavidus necator for instance (1). In attempts to simultaneously access the waste’s intrinsic energy, organic wastes high in lignocellulose, which is a major component of the cell walls in woody plants, are used to obtain biogas, such as methane, by digestion with anaerobic bacteria (2).

Even though these waste recycling methods reduces the amount of waste, there are still large amounts of organic wastes unutilised. Another way to exploit these resources is the production of biodiesel. Commonly, edible oils from rapeseed, sunflower, and soybean are utilised for biodiesel production. However, these plants are specifically cultivated for biodiesel production. In this way, the production cost of biodiesel is approximately 1.5 times higher than that for conventional mineral diesel. Significantly, the majority of the costs arise from crop production (3,4,5).

In a practical and straightforward alternative to using oil from crop plants, the oils and fats from kitchen and food waste are used instead. In this way, food crops could be channelled into the food production instead of biodiesel production (3,6). The necessity of this transition is apparent considering that the world population will increase to an estimated 9.7 billion by 2050 (7,8).

In addition to the utilisation of oils and fats from kitchen and food waste, the use of the solid residue after oil and fat extraction have been considered for biodiesel production. For this purpose, black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) are reared on these residues and subsequently their fat is extracted. The fat of BSFL meets most of the requirements of the European biodiesel standard EN 14214, and has similar fuel properties as biodiesel from rapeseed oil. Thus, kitchen and food wastes could be used in two ways to obtain fat for biodiesel production (9).

Ultimately, BSFL grow faster, have a higher biomass, and require less area compared to vegetables or even microalgae that also have been proposed for biodiesel production (4).

In 2012, a research team in China obtained almost 24 g of biodiesel from the fat of 1000 BSFL reared on 1 kg of solid organic waste residue. The residue was also reduced by almost 62 % by the BSFL within 7 days (3).

A study with 2000 BSFL that were reared on a mixture of rice straw and kitchen and food waste at several ratios for 10 days showed a production of up to 44 g of biodiesel (10).

In contrast, a study with 500 BSFL that were reared on fermented corncobs, which were previously used for biogas production, for 8 days, only 3.2 g of biodiesel were produced from the BSFL fat. Notably, the fat content in these BSFL was very low. The significantly lower amount of produced biodiesel compared to the previous studies could be attributed to the low nutrition value of fermented corn cobs (2). The fat content of BSFL after all depends on their rearing substrate, and it can be increased by providing a fat-rich substrate (9).

Another study with approximately 1000 BSFL that were reared on cattle, pig or chicken manure yielded 35.5 g, 57.8 g and 91.4 g of biodiesel, respectively (10). This, again, could be attributed to the different nutritional values of the manures.

Besides the rearing substrate for BSFL, different fat extraction methods could also account for the different quantities of fat from BSFL that, subsequently, is used for biodieel production. Mechanical pressing for instance results in low extraction yields, whereas solvent extraction yields higher amounts but require large amounts of solvents (4).

Eventually, the utilisation of a specific rearing substrates and fat extraction method has to be evaluated ecologically and economically for individual biodiesel production operations.

Overall, BSFL could be utilised for biodiesel production from organic wastes. This could, on one hand, reduce the amounts of organic waste, while simultaneously using its still remaining resources, and, on the other hand, channel food crops into food production instead of biodiesel production.


1. Kunasundari, B., Murugaiyah, V., Kaur, G., Maurer, F. H. J., & Sudesh, K. (2013) Revisiting the Single Cell Protein Application of Cupriavidus necator H16 and Recovering Bioplastic Granules Simultaneously. PLoS ONE, 8(10), e78528.

2. Li, wu & Li, Qing & Zheng, Longyu & Wang, Yuanyuan & Zhang, Jibin & Ziniu, yu & Zhang, Yanlin. (2015) Potential biodiesel and biogas production from corncob by anaerobic fermentation and black soldier fly. Bioresource technology. 194:276-82.

3. Zheng, Longyu & Li, Qing & Zhang, Jibin & Ziniu, yu. (2012) Double the biodiesel yield: Rearing black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens, on solid residual fraction of restaurant waste after grease extraction for biodiesel production. Renewable Energy. 41, 75-9.

4. Wang, C., Qian, L., Wang, W., Wang, T., Deng, Z., Yang, F., Xiong, J.., Feng, W. (2017) Exploring the potential of lipids from black soldier fly: new paradigm for biodiesel production (I). Renewable Energy. 111: 749-56.

5. Canakci M, Sanli H. (2008) Biodiesel production from various feedstocks and their effects on the fuel properties. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 35:431–41.

6. Patil, P.D., Gude, V.G., Reddy, H.K., Muppaneni, T., Deng, S.G. (2012) Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using sulfuric acid and microwave irradiation processes. J Environ Pro. 3:107-13.

7. Tilman, D., Balzer, C., Hill, J., & Befort, B. L. (2011) Global food demand and the sustainable intensification of agriculture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(50), 20260-4.

8. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2015) World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.241.

9. Li Q, Zheng L, Cai H, Garza E, Yu Z, Zhou S. (2011) From organic waste to biodiesel: black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, makes it feasible. Fuel. 90:1545e8.

10. Zheng, Longyu & Hou, Yanfei & li, wu & Yang, Sen & Li, Qing & Ziniu, yu. (2012). Biodiesel production from rice straw and restaurant waste employing black soldier fly assisted by microbes. Energy. 47. 225-29.



  1. Val Pulham says:

    I’m gone to convey my little brother, that he should also pay a visit this website on regular basis to obtain updated from latest reports.

  2. minecraft says:

    This paragraph provides clear idea for the new people of blogging, that genuinely how to do blogging.

  3. minecraft says:

    Amazing! Its really amazing post, I have got much clear idea concerning from this post.

  4. minecraft says:

    I love it when folks come together and share ideas. Great site, continue
    the good work!

  5. minecraft says:

    Good post. I learn something new and challenging on sites I stumbleupon every day.

    It will always be exciting to read through articles from other writers and use a little something
    from other websites.

  6. minecraft says:

    Appreciate this post. Will try it out.

  7. Howdy I am so glad I found your weblog, I really found you by mistake,
    while I was browsing on Askjeeve for something else, Regardless I
    am here now and would just like to say many thanks for a
    fantastic post and a all round exciting blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to look over it
    all at the minute but I have book-marked it and also included your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read a lot more,
    Please do keep up the fantastic job.

  8. These are genuinely great ideas in regarding blogging.
    You have touched some nice points here. Any way keep up wrinting.

  9. Your style is very unique in comparison to other folks I have read
    stuff from. Many thanks for posting when you have the opportunity,
    Guess I will just book mark this page.

  10. Heya i’m for the first time here. I found this board and I in finding It
    truly helpful & it helped me out a lot. I hope to provide something back
    and aid others like you helped me.

  11. Pretty nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wished to say that I have really
    enjoyed browsing your blog posts. In any case I will be subscribing to your feed and I hope you
    write again very soon!

  12. Hi to every one, it’s really a nice for me to go to see this web page, it contains helpful Information.

  13. I am not certain where you’re getting your info, but great
    topic. I needs to spend a while finding out much more
    or understanding more. Thanks for great information I was looking for this info for my

  14. Good replies in return of this issue with firm arguments and describing all regarding that.

  15. Coconut Oil says:

    I don’t even understand how I stopped up here, however I thought
    this submit was once great. I don’t understand who you might be
    but certainly you are going to a famous blogger should you aren’t already.

  16. Because the admin of this website is working, no uncertainty very quickly it will be famous, due to its quality contents.

  17. hey there and thank you for your information – I’ve certainly
    picked up something new from right here. I did however expertise a
    few technical points using this website, as I experienced to reload the website a lot of times previous to I could get
    it to load properly. I had been wondering if your web host is OK?
    Not that I’m complaining, but sluggish loading instances times will often affect your placement in google and can damage
    your high-quality score if ads and marketing with Adwords.

    Anyway I’m adding this RSS to my e-mail and could look out for much more of your respective
    fascinating content. Make sure you update this again soon.

  18. Hi! Someone in my Facebook group shared this website with us so I came
    to look it over. I’m definitely loving the information. I’m
    book-marking and will be tweeting this to my followers!
    Exceptional blog and excellent design and style.

  19. Its like you read my mind! You seem to know so
    much about this, like you wrote the book in it or something.
    I think that you can do with some pics to drive the message
    home a little bit, but other than that, this is excellent blog.
    An excellent read. I will certainly be back.

  20. Coconut Oil says:

    Having read this I thought it was rather enlightening.

    I appreciate you finding the time and energy to put this short article together.

    I once again find myself personally spending way too much time both reading
    and commenting. But so what, it was still worthwhile!

  21. Descargar facebook
    What a information of un-ambiguity and preserveness of valuable experience
    about unpredicted feelings. Descargar facebook

  22. Hello There. I discovered your weblog the use of msn.
    This is a very well written article. I will make sure
    to bookmark it and return to read more of your helpful info.

    Thank you for the post. I will definitely return.

  23. My developer is trying to convince me to move to .net from PHP.
    I have always disliked the idea because of the costs. But he’s tryiong
    none the less. I’ve been using Movable-type on several websites for
    about a year and am nervous about switching
    to another platform. I have heard fantastic things about
    Is there a way I can transfer all my wordpress posts into it?
    Any kind of help would be really appreciated!

  24. Quest Bars says:

    If you desire to grow your know-how only keep visiting this
    web site and be updated with the hottest news posted here.

  25. Sling TV says:

    Excellent blog you have got here.. It’s hard to find excellent writing like yours these days.
    I truly appreciate individuals like you! Take care!!

  26. Sling TV says:

    I have been exploring for a little bit for any high quality articles
    or weblog posts in this kind of space . Exploring in Yahoo I eventually stumbled upon this
    site. Reading this info So i’m glad to exhibit that I have a very excellent uncanny
    feeling I discovered exactly what I needed. I most indisputably will
    make certain to do not overlook this web site and provides
    it a look on a continuing basis.

  27. This article will assist the internet users for creating new blog or even a blog
    from start to end.

  28. Sling TV says:

    What’s up mates, good post and fastidious urging commented here,
    I am genuinely enjoying by these.

  29. Sling tv coupons and promo codes for november 2018
    My brother recommended I might like this website.
    He was entirely right. This post actually made my day. You cann’t imagine just
    how much time I had spent for this information! Thanks!
    Sling tv coupons and promo codes for november 2018

  30. I for all time emailed this weblog post page to all my associates, since if like to read it next my contacts will

  31. Hi there, just became alert to your blog through Google,
    and found that it is really informative. I’m gonna watch out for brussels.
    I will appreciate if you continue this in future. A lot of people will
    be benefited from your writing. Cheers!

  32. Attractive component of content. I just stumbled upon your blog and in accession capital
    to say that I get actually loved account your blog posts. Anyway I will be subscribing
    to your feeds and even I achievement you get admission to consistently fast.

  33. I was able to find good information from your content.

  34. You’ve made some decent points there. I checked on the internet to find out more about the
    issue and found most individuals will go along with your views on this

  35. John says:

    Because the admin of this website is working, no uncertainty very quickly it will be famous, due to its quality contents. online games arcade

  36. sildenafil says:

    how do i get my doctor to prescribe me sildenafil viagra online lisinopril and sildenafil.

  37. cialis mexico sin receta cialis
    cost. cialis fda indications.

  38. informação sobre sildenafil generic viagra canada what happens if you take 200mg sildenafil

Post a comment